In today world of automotive competition, every manufacturer want to deliver a product that brings reliability with economic performance for their customers as well as to meet the emission control to meet climate change. There are many peoples who have negative view on the rising corporate average fuel economy (CAFÉ ) standard as 54.5 miles per gallon (23.2 kmpl) by 2025 as higher fuel economy requirement will force them to buy dull cars with higher fuel economy scores in which they won’t have much fun to drive. But in the view of climate change, development of engines with emission control with optimized fuel economy will be challenges for the engineers.
There are few technologies through which engine performance and efficiency can be improved to meet the future regulations and standards as well as market need:
- Direct Injection
In Direct injection system, highly pressurized fuel is squirted directly into the combustion chamber at the top of the piston’s stroke. In indirect injection, inefficiency of burning fuel and loss of energy is the key issue that brings the need of direct injection system in gasoline engines but direct injection allow fuel to burn more evenly and thoroughly during operation. Direct injection provides better mileage and greater power to the wheels.
Direct injection system may results into knocking but with combination of direct injection and turbo charging, the problem can be resolved.
- Higher Compression Ration
Engine performance and fuel efficiency can be improved by increasing compression ration inside the engine. The compression ratio is the amount of fuel and air squeezed into the combustion chamber. When this ratio is higher, it uses fuel more efficiently.
- Flex Fuel
A flexible-fuel vehicle (FFV) or dual-fuel vehicle (colloquially called a flex-fuel vehicle) is an alternative fuel vehicle with an internal combustion engine designed to run on more than one fuel, usually gasoline blended with either ethanol or methanol fuel, and both fuels are stored in the same common tank.(Source Wikipedia)
Flex–fuel capable” means an engine can run on any blend of non-diesel fuel from 100 percent gasoline to 15 percent gas/85 percent ethanol, also called E85. Most gasoline engines sold in the U.S. are designed to run on a gas blend that contains up to 10 percent ethanol, which is added to gasoline to reduce emissions. (Source Wikipedia).
- EV Power Boost
In most of the hybrid vehicle are admittedly low so to overcome the concern innovation of power boost took place in order to meet the higher acceleration and pick up requirements. “Push to Pass” , the concept shown by Jaguar in 2011 in C –X16 at Frankfurt Motor, is the remedy to meet the need of additional power. It is powered by supercharged 3 liter V-6 gasoline engine and an electric motor. By pressing this button the electric motor gets 70 hp power boosts, like racing cars to feel the fun driving.
- Cylinder selection
In most of the higher powered cars , requirement of acceleration is big need, so cylinder selection technique can help to improve the acceleration with improve in fuel economy.
i.e. when the Audi S8 is accelerating from 0 to 62 miles per hour (100 kilometers per hour) in 4.2 seconds, it requires all eight of its cylinders to be firing. But when it reaches cruising speed a few seconds later, it no longer has that heavy workload to maintain. Four of those eight cylinders cut out completely, so the engine acts like a four-cylinder.
By Shriram Tailor